Town planning refers to the designing of communities or towns which have a number of characteristics in common. One of these characteristics is the planning and development of places to make them attractive to people who want to live there. Town planning has been defined as an academic and political field concerned with the design and development of the urban environment and land use, including the infrastructure passing through town centres and local transport systems, including water and communications networks. The planning process is not only a social and economic one, but it is also a critical part of the development of a community. principles for building better cities Town planning can encompass anything from the layout of roads through an urban area to the kind of houses and other buildings that are built there. For example, some town planning is focused on the use of green spaces and parks, while others are focused on the kinds of businesses and commercial establishments that are constructed in certain areas. There are two major categories of town planning; there are formal plans which are prepared by town planners in charge of creating these plans for a community. These plans are published in a legal document called a local plan, and then there is the informal town planning that occurs when the planning board decides to develop a certain area. The informal town planning process is often referred to as a zoning system because it involves the approval of a property's zoning designation before any construction begins. This is usually done by a community but can be completed by an individual or by the municipality itself.